Artificial intelligence is coined from two different words. Artificial is said to be man made while intelligence on the other hand is the capacity of mind to understand principles, truth, facts or meanings, to acquire knowledge, and apply it to practice. It’s the ability to learn and comprehend. Artificial intelligence is therefore machines created by man to make life easy and comfortable. These are computer programs or machines that help to think and learn.
AI has been in existence since time immemorial, it actually started with myths and rumors of artificial beings endowed with intelligence or consciousness by master craftsmen. AI began with an ancient wish to forge the gods. The modeled on the arrangement of neurons in brain and Technology related to computer internet was inspired by a confluence of ideas that became relevant in 1930s, 1940s and early 1950s. Research in neurology had shown that the brain was an electrical network of neurons that fired in all-or-nothing pulses. Examples of work in this vain includes robots, these machines did not use computers, digital electron or symbolic reasoning; they were controlled entirely by analog circuits.
The invention of AI traced back to John McCarthy who is the founding father along with Marvin Minskey, AllenNewell and Herbert A. Simon. McCarthy coined the term “Artificial intelligence” in 1955.
The main goal of artificial intelligence is to implementing intelligence in machines which tends to develop systems which can understand, think, learn and behave like humans. AI has a huge impact on many of the fields such as gaming, natural language processing, experts system, vision system, speech recognition, handwriting recognition, intelligent robots etc.
There are four types of AI
This is the most basic types of AI systems are purely reactive, and have the ability either to form memory or to use past experiences to inform current decisions.
The limited memory machine
This type is little different from reactive machine because it save specific objects of the past that leads them to react according to. And this memory is just a short –term memory. Examples include; self-driving cars, chat robots and traffic lights.
The theory of mind machine
This type is advance and more intelligent because it reacts according to understanding people emotions and thought, that is, it can adjust to people around, build social interactions, predict how people look forward to be treated and thus behave according to these expectations.
The self-awareness machine
This is the extension of the theory of mind type.
In a sense, self- awareness is a personal trait regarding someone’s ability to persistently and accurately perceive their presence amongst other people, their own knowledge and abilities; and subsequently, to recognize their limitations for those even which they are particularly confident with. So, this type of machines is more aware of their needs and internal sense than we human.
AI was created to think and act as human so they could be quite efficient at doing our jobs for us. It is quite possible that they take over most of our jobs as they are seem to be more efficient at doing most of our works and therefore it is more feasible to let them do it. Even right now, robots are being designed to play football and there are some who work in banks. Very soon, we might just attain that age where we have an AI in every home to help make our everyday lives easier.